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Questions, answers, ideas / Lost data base of posts
« Last post by Ron on July 18, 2017, 01:30:28 PM »
It has taken me three months of work to save most (but no all) of the posts in this forum.
Scared away most posters it seems.
Too bad  :x

Off Topic / Lost three years of posts
« Last post by Ron on July 05, 2017, 08:13:17 AM »
I had to dig way back to resurrect what was lost.
Provider corrupt database. :(
Questions, answers, ideas / Foundations
« Last post by Geo. on December 12, 2016, 01:02:31 PM »
Dead Weight Compared to Live or Dynamic Weight
The load on the foundation has two components. First, there is the total machine static weight or dead weight. The foundation should not be designed based on this factor alone. There is also the live weight that is generally assumed to be 1.5 times the static or dead weight of the machine.

A number of factors determine press foundation requirements. machines subjected to sudden snap-through loads from cutting operations have more critical foundation requirements than similar machines developing increasing pressor loads like drawing or forming.

Many manufacturers and engineers allow a safety factor of 1.5 times the dead weight of the press and heaviest tooling for the live weight factor when designing the foundation. This is a rule of thumb. An individual case-by-case engineering analysis may result in a different actual live weight figure. Of course, it is wise to over-design the foundation if there is any doubt as to the actual live weight. The amount of live weight is greater in the case of machines having heavy slides and operated with long stroke lengths and at higher speeds.

Manufacturers may supply guidelines for foundation requirements. Because of the effects of applications, the final responsibility for a proper installation is the duty of the machine user. One of the most popular foundations is a rectangular slab of reinforced concrete placed on soil at least as good as firm well-drained clay.
Typically, the slab is isolated from the surrounding concrete flooring by an inch (25.4-mm) of insulation board and the top of the joint sealed with an oil resistant sealing compound

Soil Conditions

If the press is placed on a reinforced concrete floor, the thickness and strength of the concrete are important factors. However, the soil condition under the concrete is a very important consideration. Well-drained undisturbed clay over sound bedrock can support heavy loads. Foundations placed on solid bedrock are ideal.

The Slab or Inertia Block Foundation

Many types of machine foundations can be found in use throughout the industry. Variables such as soil conditions, machine weight, and dynamic loading all should be considered when developing a final plan for a foundation design.
Manufacturers may supply guidelines for foundation requirements. Because of the effects of applications, the final responsibility for a proper installation is the duty of the machine user. One of the most popular foundations is a rectangular slab of reinforced concrete placed on soil at least as good as firm well-drained clay.
Typically, the slab is isolated from the surrounding concrete flooring by an inch (25.4-mm) of insulation board and the top of the joint sealed with an oil resistant sealing compound

It is advisable that the slab should extend beyond each of the machines feet on all sides. And that less than ideal soil conditions may require a larger slab.

The slab thickness should provide a weight equal to or greater than that of the machine if soil conditions are ideal
If shock loads through energy release are expected, the weight should be increased to 1-1/2 to two times the machine weight. If the soil conditions are not ideal, it may be necessary to increase the foundation dimensions in all directions.
The concrete should be of high quality and have a minimum compressive strength of 3,500-psi (24,129 kPa) after curing 28 days. If anchor bolts or other fasteners are to be used, they should be cast into the slab at locations that line up with the mounting holes in the press feet. The weight of the machine  must be distributed evenly on the slab foundation.   

Questions, answers, ideas / Machine erection
« Last post by Geo. on December 07, 2016, 01:19:34 PM »
Does any anyone have an intrest in Machine erection as a topic? 
This is an outline for lession plans I have been working on it is incomplete but if there is intrest...

#1 - Read and review all documentation, instructions and blueprints before starting any installation

#2 - Identify Requirements

#3 - Ask questions

Temperature / environment V does the machine require a temperature, humidity or dust controlled environment? Should the Ventilation be positive, negative or neutral? Does there need to be exhaust of fumes or vapor? 
Access V is the access adequate for the installation? Are there any concerns about clearances?  Will part of the structure have to be moved or modified? Is any part of the structure being modified load bearing? Are there utilities involved? Fire systems?

Workspace V how much space will be needed in and around the machine?

Access V is there parts of the machine that will require access for adjustments or maintenance?

Foundation V is the floor thick enough for the weight and operating vibration of the machine? Or does the machine require an engineered foundation?

Footing V isolation pads, grouted mounting

Power V is the power available adequate? Is the power location accessible?

Air / hydraulic
V will the machine require an outside source of pneumatic or hydraulic power? Will there need to be containment?

Water / drain - will a source of water be needed? is there drainage? 

Tools and equipment

Outside services

Order of assembly
Questions, answers, ideas / Hydraulic Hoses
« Last post by Geo. on November 29, 2016, 12:08:01 PM »
Hydraulic Hoses
To say that hose is an important part of a hydraulic system is a huge understatement. The flexibility of hose enables components to be positioned in the most efficient or convenient places, because the hose has the ability to bend around corners, through tight spaces, or across long distances.
Yet these days, there seems to be as many different types of hose as there are telephone long-distance carriers. How does a designer tell one from the other? Isn't there an easy way to choose or compare hoses?

The SAE standards
SAE answers those questions with its J517 hydraulic hose standard. This hose standard serves as the most popular benchmark in the realm of industrial hydraulics today. More specifically, J517 is a set of guidelines that applies to the current SAE 100R series of hoses. Currently, 16 such hose styles exist, and they are designated as 100R1 through 100R16 (see descriptions, pages A105 and 106). Each of the styles must meet a set of dimensional and performance characteristics as set forth by SAE. However, SAE issues no approval source lists, certification, or letters of approval-conformance to these standards by manufacturers is strictly voluntary. In short, the standards only assure a similarity of products among different manufacturers.

Hydraulic hose construction
Modern hydraulic hose typically consists of at least three parts: an inner tube that carries the fluid, a reinforcement layer, and a protective outer layer.

The inner tube must have some flexibility and needs to be compatible with the type of fluid it will carry. Commonly used compounds include synthetic rubber, thermoplastics, and PTFE, sometimes called Teflon. The reinforcement layer consists of one or more sheaths of braided wire, spiral-wound wire, or textile yarn. The outer layer is often weather-, oil-, or abrasion-resistant, depending upon the type of environment the hose is designed for.

Not surprisingly, hydraulic hoses have a finite life. Proper sizing and use of the correct type of hose will certainly extend the life of a hose assembly, but there are many different factors that affect a hose's lifespan. SAE identifies some of the worst offenses as:
   flexing the hose to less than the specified minimum bend radius
   twisting, pulling, kinking, crushing, or abrading the hose
   operating the hydraulic system above maximum or below minimum temperature
   exposing the hose to rapid or transient rises (surges) in pressure above the maximum operating pressure, and
   intermixing hose, fittings, or assembly equipment not recommended as compatible by the manufacturer or not following the manufacturer's instructions for fabricating hose assemblies.

Selecting the proper hose
Here are seven recommended steps the system designer should follow during the hose and coupling selection process. To help determine the proper hose for an application, use the acronym STAMPED - from Size, Temperature, Application, Materials, Pressure, Ends, and Delivery. Here is what to consider in each area:

Size - In order to select the proper hose size for replacement, it is important to measure the inside and outside hose diameters exactly using a precision-engineered caliper, as well as the length of the hose. Hose OD is particularly important when hose-support clamps are used or when hoses are routed through bulkheads. Check individual hose specification tables for ODs in suppliers' catalogs. When replacing a hose assembly, always cut the new hose the same length as the one being removed. Moving components of the equipment may pinch or even sever too long a hose. If the replacement hose is too short, pressure may cause the hose to contract and be stretched, leading to reduced service life.

Changes in hose length when pressurized range between +2% to 4% while hydraulic mechanisms are in operation. Allow for possible shortening of the hose during operation by making the hose lengths slightly longer than the actual distance between the two connections.

- All hoses are rated with a maximum working temperature ranging from 200 to 300 F based on the fluid temperature. Exposure to continuous high temperatures can lead to hoses losing their flexibility. Failure to use hydraulic oil with the proper viscosity to hold up under high temperatures can accelerate this problem. Always follow the hose manufacturer's recommendations.
Exceeding these temperature recommendations can reduce hose life by as much as 80%. Depending on materials used, acceptable temperatures may range from -65 F (Hytrel and winterized rubber compounds) to 400 F (PTFE). External temperatures become a factor when hoses are exposed to a turbo manifold or some other heat source.

When hoses are exposed to high external and internal temperatures concurrently, there will be a considerable reduction in hose service life. Insulating sleeves can help protect hose from hot equipment parts and other high temperature sources that are potentially hazardous. In these situations, an additional barrier is usually required to shield hydraulic fluid from a potential source of ignition.

Application - Will the selected hose meet bend radius requirements? This refers to the minimum bend radius (usually in inches) that a hydraulic hose must meet. Exceeding this bend radius (using a radius smaller than recommended) is likely to injure the hose reinforcement and reduce hose life.

Route high-pressure hydraulic lines parallel to machine contours whenever possible. This practice can help save money by reducing line lengths and minimizing the number of hard-angle, flow-restricting bends. Such routing also can protect lines from external damage and promote easier servicing.

Materials - It is mandatory to consult a compatibility chart to check that the tube compound is compatible with the fluid used in the system. Elevated temperature, fluid contamination, and concentration will affect the chemical compatibility of the tube and fluid. Most hydraulic hoses are compatible with petroleum-based oils. Note that new readily biodegradeable or green fluids may present a problem for some hoses.

Pressure capabilities - Hose working pressure must always be chosen so that it is greater than or equal to the maximum system pressure, including pressure spikes. Pressure spikes greater than the published working pressure will significantly shorten hose life.

Hose ends - The coupling-to-hose mechanical interface must be compatible with the hose selected. The proper mating thread end must be chosen so that connection of the mating components will result in leak-free sealing.
There are two general categories of couplings to connect most types of hose: the permanent type (used primarily by equipment manufacturers, large-scale rebuilders, and maintenance shops) and the field-attachable type.

Permanently attached couplings are cold-formed onto the hose with powered machinery. They are available for most rubber and thermoplastic hoses and offer a wide range of dependable connections at low cost. Assemblies made in the field with portable machines are relatively simple; these machines are economical and easy to operate. In most cases, it is not necessary to skive the cover. These couplings are less complicated to install than other types.

Field-attachable couplings are classified as screw-together and clamp-type. The screw-together coupling attaches to the hose by turning the outer coupling shell over the outside diameter of the hose. The coupling insert is then screwed into the coupling shell. A clamp-type coupling has a 2-piece outer shell that clamps onto the hose OD with either two or four bolts and nuts.

In either case, the coupling has limited potential for reuse because the threads distort during attachment.

To ensure the correct-size coupling is used when replacing an assembly, the number of threads per inch and thread diameter of the original coupling must be determined. Thread pitch gages are available for identifying the number of threads per inch. A caliper can measure both inside and outside dimensions of the threads. ODs are measured on male couplings, while IDs are measured on female couplings.

In most situations, the only differences between an SAE coupling and an imported coupling are the thread configuration and the seat angle. International thread ends can be metric, measured in mm, but also include BSP (British Standard Pipe) threads, which are measured in inches. Knowing the country of origin provides a clue as to what type of thread end is used. DIN (Deutsche Industrial Norme) fittings began in Germany and now are found throughout Europe, while BSP is found on British equipment. Japanese Komatsu machinery uses Komatsu fittings with metric threads, while other Japanese equipment most likely uses JIS (Japanese Industrial StandardBSP threads), or, in some cases, BSP with straight or tapered threads.

Three determinations are required to identify these couplings correctly:
   type of seat - inverted (BSPP & DIN), regular (JIS & Komatsu) or flat (flange, flat-face)
   seat angle - 30 (JIS, BSP, DIN and Komatsu) or 12 (DIN), and
   type of threads - metric (DIN or Komatsu), BSP (BSPP, BSPT or JIS), or tapered (BSPT or JIS Tapered)

SAE standards relating to hydraulic/pneumatic fittings and assemblies specifically designed to eliminate leakage include:
   J514 - straight thread ports/fittings
   J518c - 4-bolt flange ports/fittings, and
   XJ1453 - the number provisionally assigned to O-ring face seal fittings.

Delivery - How available is the product? Is it unique? How soon can it be delivered to the distributor or end user? It may be preferable to consider several options to maximize flexibility and avoid the delays that can result from relying on components that are unavailable or in short supply.

Type of fluid   Pressure range
SAE#   Petroleum oil   Synthetic oil   High-water content   Temp.*   psi   ID, in.   psi   ID, in.
100R1   x        x   1   3,000   3/16   375   2
100R2   x       x   1   5,000   3/16   1,000   2-1/2
100R3   x       x   1   1,500   3/16   375   1-1/4
100R4   x       x   1   300   3/4   35   4
100R5   x       x   1   3,000   3/16   200   3
100R6   x       x   1   500   3/16   300   3/4
100R7   x   x   x   2   3,000   3/16   1,000   1
100R8   x   x   x   2   5,000   3/16   2,000   1
100R9   x       x   1   4,500   3/8   2,000   2
100R10   x       x   1   10,000   3/16   2,500   2
100R11   x       x   1   12,500   3/16   2,500   2-1/2
100R12   x       x   3   4,000   3/8   2,500   2
100R13   x       x   3   5,000   3/4   5,000   2
100R14   x   x   x   4   1,500   1/8   600   1-1/8
100R15   x           3   6,000   3/8   6,000   1-1/2
100R16   x       x   1   5,000   1/4   1,625   1-1/4
* Temperatures: 1 = -40 to 100C; 2 = -40 to 93C; 3 = -40 to 121C; 4 = -54 to 204C

Questions, answers, ideas / Hydraulic pump formulas
« Last post by Geo. on November 29, 2016, 11:58:27 AM »
Horsepower for driving a pump:
For every 1 hp of drive, the equivalent of 1 gpm @ 1500 psi can be produced.

Horsepower for Idling a pump:
To idle a pump when it is unloaded will require about 5% of it's full rated power

Wattage for heating hydraulic oil:
Each watt will raise the temperature of 1 gallon of oil by 1X F. per hour.

Flow velocity in hydraulic lines:
Pump suction lines 2 to 4 feet per second, pressure lines up to 500 psi - 10 to 15 ft./sec., pressure lines 500 to 3000 psi - 15 to 20 ft./sec.; all oil lines in air-over-oil systems; 4 ft./sec.

   Pump Output Flow V GPM   GPM = (Speed (rpm) disp. (cu. in.)) / 231       (GPM = (n d) / 231)   

   Pump Input Horsepower V HP   HP = GPM Pressure (psi) / 1714 Efficiency    (HP = (Q P) / 1714 E)

   Pump Efficiency V E    Overall Efficiency = Output HP / Input HP    (E Overall = HP Out / HP In X 100 )
Overall Efficiency = Volumetric Eff. Mechanical Eff.    (E Overall = Eff Vol. Eff Mech. )

   Pump Volumetric Efficiency V E   Volumetric Efficiency = Actual Flow Rate Output (GPM) / Theoretical Flow Rate Output (GPM) 100      (Eff Vol. = Q Act. / Q Theo. X 100)

   Pump Mechanical Efficiency V E       Mechanical Efficiency = Theoretical Torque to Drive / Actual Torque to Drive 100    (Eff Mech. = T Theo. / T Act. 100)

   Pump Displacement V CIPR    Displacement (In.3 / rev.) = Flow Rate (GPM) 231 / Pump RPM
(CIPR = GPM 231 / RPM)

   Pump Torque V T     Torque = Horsepower 63025 / RPM       
 (T = 63025 HP / RPM)
Torque = Pressure (PSIG) Pump Displacement (CIPR) / 2k       
(T = P CIPR / 6.28)

Questions, answers, ideas / Pneumatics / hydraulics
« Last post by Geo. on November 29, 2016, 11:54:54 AM »
Comparison to hydraulics
Both pneumatics and hydraulics are applications of fluid power. Pneumatics uses an easily compressible gas such as air or a suitable pure gaswhile hydraulics uses relatively incompressible liquid media such as oil. Most industrial pneumatic applications use pressures of about 80 to 100 pounds per square inch (550 to 690 kpa) Hydraulics applications commonly use from 1,000 to 5,000 psi (6.9 to 34.5 MPa), but specialized applications may exceed 10,000 psi (69 MPa).

Advantages of pneumatics
   Simplicity of design and controlMachines are easily designed using standard cylinders and other components, and operate via simple on-off control.
   ReliabilityPneumatic systems generally have long operating lives and require little maintenance. Because gas is compressible, equipment is less subject to shock damage. Gas absorbs excessive force, whereas fluid in hydraulics directly transfers force. Compressed gas can be stored, so machines still run for a while if electrical power is lost.
   Safety There is a very low chance of fire compared to hydraulic oil. Newer machines are usually over load safe.
Advantages of hydraulics
   Liquid does not absorb any of the supplied energy.
   Capable of moving much higher loads and providing much higher forces due to the incompressibility.
   The hydraulic working fluid is basically incompressible, leading to a minimum of spring action. When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the load releases the pressure on the load; there is no need to "bleed off" pressurized air to release the pressure on the load.
   Highly responsive compared to pneumatics.
   Supply more power than pneumatics.
   Can also do many purposes at one time: lubrication, cooling and power transmission.

Pneumatic logic systems (sometimes called air logic control) are sometimes used for controlling industrial processes, consisting of primary logic units like:
   And Units
   Or Units
   'Relay or Booster' Units
   Latching Units
   'Timer' Units
   Sorteberg relay
   Fluidics amplifiers with no moving parts other than the air itself
Pneumatic logic is a reliable and functional control method for industrial processes. In recent years, these systems have largely been replaced by electronic control systems in new installations because of the smaller size, lower cost, greater precision, and more powerful features of digital controls. Pneumatic devices are still used where upgrade cost, or safety factors dominate.

The circuit comprises the following components:
   Active components
o   Compressor
   Transmission lines
o   Air tank
o   Pneumatic hoses
o   Open atmosphere (for returning the spent gas to the compressor)
o   Valves
   Passive components
o   Pneumatic cylinders
o   Service Unit
   FRL - Filter Regulator and Lubricator
Pneumatic cylinder
In general, based on the application, a pneumatic single acting cylinder, where there is a single port in the cylinder and were cylinder extension is done by compressed air and retraction by means of open coiled spring. In double acting cylinders two ports both extend and retract by means of compressed air.
Single Acting Cylinder
Double Acting Cylinder
Direction control valve (DCV)
The direction control valve is used to control the direction of flow of compressed air. Usually classified into normally open (NO)and normally closed (NC)valves. The normally open valves will permit flow from inlet port of valve to outlet port normally the flow will be cut by changing the position of the valve. The normally closed valves will not permit flow from inlet port of valve to outlet port normally the flow will be permitted only by changing the position of the valve. In general valves are designated as 2/2 DCV, 3/2DCV, 5/2 DCV,5/3 DCV etc. In which the first numerical indicates number of ports and second numerical indicates number of positions. To change the position, the valves are generally actuated by:
   Pedal Operated
   Push button operated
   Spring operated
   Solenoid operated
   By using Pneumatic source itself etc.
The other auxiliary valves are
Two pressure valve (And Valve)
Generally two valve actuators (push buttons) are used when both the push buttons are pressed at a time the air flow takes place if either any one is pressed at a time air flow will not take place in valve outlet. Generally used in mechanical press and machine tools to ensure operator's both the hands are outside the machine or press during operation.
OR Valve
Generally two valve actuators (push buttons) are used when either one push button is pressed the air flow takes place. This is also called as shuttle valve.
Check valve
The check valve allows air flow in one direction, it is also called as non return valve.
Quick exhaust valve
The valve construction is OR valve with exhaust port,ensures quick return of cylinder therefore cycle time reduces
Flow control valve
The combination throttle valve connected to check valve is called one way flow control valve, while air passes from one direction to other the check valve will not allow the air flow (As the check valve allows flow only in one direction) while through the restricted way of throttle compressed air flow takes place. While the air comes out from other way both the ways of throttle as well as the check valve opens to pass the compressed air therefore the piston moment in one direction can be controlled.
Time delay valve
The combination of 3/2 direction control valve, reservoir and flow control valve is time delay valve. This valve is used to delay the actuation of cylinder after pressing the push button or pedal etc.
Pressure relief valve
The pressure relief valve is used to maintain the system set pressure, in case if the system set pressure increases the pressure relief valve gets opens and exhaust the compressed air to atmosphere

Questions, answers, ideas / Basic Fluid Power Formulas
« Last post by Geo. on November 29, 2016, 11:39:26 AM »
Basic Fluid Power Formulas
   Fluid Pressure (P) (PSI pounds per sq. in.)
   PSI = force / area (P= F / A)
   Fluid flow rate (Q) (GPM gallons per min.)
   GPM = Flow / Time (Q = V / T)
   Fluid power in Horsepower (HP)
   Horsepower = PSIG * Flow / 1714 (P * Q / 1714)

 Actuator formulas
   Cylinder area (A) (sq. in.)
   A = Pi (3.14) * R2 (Radius squared)
   Alterative - A = Pi (3.14) * D2 (Diameter squared) / 4

   Cylinder Force (F) (pounds)
   Force = PSI * Area (F = P * A)

   Cylinder Speed = (v) (feet per sec.)
   Feet /sec. = (231 * Flow rate) / (12 * 60 * Area)             (v = (0.3208 * GPM) / A)

   Cylinder Volume Capacity V
   Volume = Pi (3.14) * R2 (Radius squared) * Stroke / 231         (V = Pi * R2 * L /231)  (L = Length of stroke)

   Cylinder Flow Rate (Q)
   Volume = 12 * 60 * v * Net Area 2 (squared) / 231            (Q = 3.11688 * v * A)

   Fluid Motor horsepower (HP)
   HP = Torque * RPM / 63025  (HP = T * n / 63025)

   Fluid motor speed (n)
   Speed (RPM) = (231 * GPM) * Displacement (in)3         (n = (231 * GPM) / d)

   Fluid Motor Torque (T)
   Torque (in. lb.) = Pressure * Displacement (1n.3 / rev) / 6.2822      (T = P * d / 6.2822)
   Torque = HP * 63025 / RPM (T = HP * 63025 / n)
   Torque = Flow rate (GPM) * Pressure * 36.77 / RPM         (T = 36.77 * Q * P / n)
Questions, answers, ideas / Engineering: A Rewarding Career Path
« Last post by Geo. on October 31, 2016, 08:49:11 AM »
Engineering: A Rewarding Career Path
Mon, 10/31/2016 - 9:28am
by Mitch Maiman, President of IPS

As product design engineers, we possess a blend of imagination, technical intelligence, and problem-solving skills -- attributes which are critical for us to build complex products and solutions for many different uses. We get to take creative thinking, technical knowledge, and innovation and apply it to our jobs every day. Here are some reasons it's truly a rewarding career path:

You can be creative
When most people think of engineering, creativity doesn't necessarily spring to mind. We are not painters or sculptors, for example. We dont compose music. However, many of us do sketch out our ideas on low-tech materials such as paper, whiteboards, Post-It notes, and napkins. We often find ourselves lost in thought while sketching or using manual or automated tools to help capture ideas. And, while we may not sculpt with clay, we do work with our hands building prototypes and models, and tweaking things in the physical world.

You get to solve puzzles
Many of us enjoy facing new challenges every day. Frequently, the answers are to develop a unique solution or to create new technologies. Sometimes existing products need a makeover, but even if the improvements are just incremental, creativity is needed to envision and realize new product features or manufacturing cost reductions. Every new project brings new challenges.

Your work is appreciated
Enlightened companies and managers recognize the amazing achievements of design engineers. Everyone appreciates a pat on the back for a job well done, and engineers are no exception. We take pride in the work we do and enjoy the spotlight for a job well done.
Unfortunately, not all companies offer the same levels of recognition; but engineers understand that our works of "art" are often practical and ultimately help improve society, which is a great source of pride for us. We continue to create, earning satisfaction from the process as well as from the result even if nobody else notices. Like artists, engineers have an end product software, hardware or both to show off at the end of the process.

Your career will be rewarding
In well organized and efficiently operated companies, it is common for the best engineers to advance within their field. In companies where there is a real dual career path, one does not need to give up the fascinating, challenging and creative work as an engineer in order to advance. Dual career paths let good engineers who like doing engineering work move up within their functions. They are compensated with benefits and salary similar to their peers in management roles.

Many places especially those that are successful businesses foster an atmosphere where engineering can be an enjoyable and personally satisfying profession. The most personal satisfaction is gained at an employer that sees engineering as a key value proposition in the creation and support of the companys products. There, the engineer is recognized as a catalyst for product differentiation and is very much a part of driving company profitability and top line revenue growth. That environment supports the engineering process. However, even in the worst of environments, engineers can often shut off the noise and just enjoy their own creative process, drawing self-satisfaction and taking pride in their work.

Mitch Maiman, President and Co-founder Intelligent Product Solutions
Mitch is the President and Co-Founder of Intelligent Product Solutions (IPS), a company that delivers a new model for software and hardware product development, integrating the full spectrum of design and engineering disciplines as a single source solution.  Always espousing a hands-on approach to design, he holds a portfolio of United States and international patents and has more than 30 years of product design experience. Mitch holds a Bachelor of Science and a Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering from Columbia University, and an MBA from Fairleigh Dickinson University. He can be reached at
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Questions, answers, ideas / Re: Help on power calcuations
« Last post by Geo. on October 21, 2016, 07:59:36 AM »
Ok no takers?
and the answer is;

Basic Fluid Power Formulas
   Fluid Pressure (P) (PSI pounds per sq. in.)
   PSI = force / area (P= F / A)

   Fluid flow rate (Q) (GPM gallons per min.)
   GPM = Flow / Time (Q = V / T)

   Fluid power in Horsepower (HP)
   Horsepower = PSIG * Flow / 1714 (P * Q / 1714)
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