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11
For Sale or Trade / machines for sale
« Last post by Geo. on October 18, 2016, 12:25:20 PM »
I have some machines the powers that be asked me to sell
 good foe 30 days
make offer, (prices are pending ebay listing)
email  george@laron.com

Lathe - Reed – Prentice 17”x 40”     $1750.00 or best offer
1943 Reed Prentice engine lathe was purchased as excess and put into storage years ago
Sold “As Is” – untested – inspection shows some handling damage otherwise in fair shape (please see pictures) Pictures were taken in storage please contact for more information
3 jaw chuck,
Taper attachment,
3ph motor,
approximant weight 5000 lbs.
Free local pickup – Buyer responsible for shipping All charges - quote on request
Please contact or call with any questions George @ 928-279-3824

Mill - Kempsmith MasterMill       $2000.00 or best offer
Kempsmith MasterMill Universal Mill - was removed from service with feed box issues and put into storage years ago - Pictures were taken in storage please contact for more information
Sold “As Is” – untested – inspection shows some handling damage otherwise in fair shape
12” x 70” Table –
Travel X = 48” Y = 12” Z = 18” –
 Horizontal with Vertical head –
#50 Taper –
3ph
Feed box will need repair – feed motor was rebuilt w/new clutch
Free local pickup – Shipping quote on request - Buyer responsible for shipping all charges
Approximant weight 6000 lbs.
Please contact or call with any questions George @ 928-279-3824


Morris Radial Drill   $1500.00
Morris “Mor-Speed” Radial Drill was purchased as excess and put into storage years ago
Sold “As Is” – untested – inspection shows some damage –Broken top cap casting, can be brazed all pieces present (please see pictures), old but otherwise in fair shape
Pictures were taken in storage please contact for more information
#4 MT spindle taper
8” column,
36” x 36” T slot base,
24” x 18” tilt table,
9” vice,
3ph
Free local pickup – Shipping quote on request - Buyer responsible for shipping all charges – (we will load at no charge)
Approximant weight 6000 lbs.
Please contact or call with any questions George @ 928-279-3824

Sparcatron EDM machine    $750.00
For parts only, I do not know anything about this machine other than what’s in the pictures
Sold “As Is” – untested – For parts only - inspection shows old but otherwise in fair shape
Pictures were taken in storage please contact for more information
Free local pickup – Buyer responsible for all shipping all charges – Shipping quote on request
(we will load at no charge) - Please contact or call with any questions George @ 928-279-3824




Landis 10x24 universal grinder        $1250.00 or best offer
Garage find, put into storage years ago, missing X hand wheel and tail stock otherwise looks complete including rear cover (not shown) I was told that the grinder was used for grinding centers and was in operation when the company closed then was stored inside for years – the hand wheels move freely  – motors turn – surfaces have a layer of dirt and oil but no heavy rust – some engine cleaner and scotch bright would work wonders
Universal Wheel and Work Head
Swing Down Internal Grinding attachment
Hydraulic Table Traverse
Hydraulic Infeed
Lube System
Coolant
4 Jaw Chuck
Sold “As Is” – untested –
Free local pickup – Buyer responsible for shipping all charges – Shipping quote on request
Please contact or call with any questions George @ 928-279-3824

South Bend Power Turret Tail Stock     $300.00
Sold “As Is” – untested – inspection shows old but otherwise in fair shape
Free local pickup – Buyer responsible for all shipping all charges – Shipping quote on request
Approximant weight 120 lbs.
Please contact or call with any questions George @ 928-279-3824

Black & Decker valve grinder for parts -        $150.00
Sold “As Is” – untested – work head jack shaft missing
12
Questions, answers, ideas / Gear trains
« Last post by Geo. on October 18, 2016, 12:17:01 PM »
Compound gearing is also known as a ¡§Gear Train¡¨ 
 
            
 Gear A (24t) is the Drive Gear, Driven Gear B (44t) shares a common shaft and is Keyed to Gear C (24t), which drives gear D (68t)

„«   To find the RPM or Number of teeth of any driven gear Divide the product of the driving gears by the product of the Driven gears

Example 1
To find Output RPM:
If gear A rotates at 100 rpm what speed does gear D rotate at?
(Input RPM * driver * driver / driven * driven = output RPM)
100 * 24/44 * 24/68 = 19.25 rpm

Exercise 1
If gear A rotates at 75 rpm what speed does gear D rotate at?
75* 24 * 24 / 44 * 68 = 14.5 (14.43 Rounded)

Example 2
To find number of Teeth
(Input RPM * driver * driver / driven * output RPM = number of output teeth)
100 x 24/44 x 24/19.25 = 68 teeth

Exercise 2
Find the number of teeth of the output gear
If gear A makes 75 revelations how many teeth does gear D need to make 14.5 Rpm? 
75 * 24 * 24 = 43200
44 * 14.5 = 638
43200 / 638 = 68 (67.7 Rounded)


Example 3
To Find Input RPM
19.25 * 68 * 44 / 24 * 24 = 100

Exercise 3
How many RPM must gear A make if gear D is required to make 45 RPM?
(Output RPM * driven * driven / driver * driver = input RPM)
45 * 68 * 44 = 134640
24 * 24 = 576
134640 / 576 = 233.75

„«   Finding Gears that will transmit motion at a given Ratio
3/7 = 2/3.5 * 1.5/2 = (2 * 12) / (3.5 * 12) * (1.5 * 16) / (2 * 16)
(The Multipliers used are ones that will produce an available set of gears)
 = 24/42 ¡V 24/32
A = 24t input Drive / B = 42t driven ¡V C = 24t Driver / D = 32t Driven output = 3/7th ratio
 
            
Proving: 3 / 7 of 100 = 42.8
100 (rpm)* 24 * 24 = 57600
42 * 32 = 1344
57600 / 1344 = 42.8
Note: The Multipliers can be changed to produce a set of available gears that will complement the center distances needed 

„«   Worm and worm wheel
To fine the output speed of a worm wheel we need to know the input speed, the number of starts (threads) of the worm and the number of teeth on the worm wheel
Note: the worm is considered a gear with 1 tooth if it is a single lead, 2 teeth if it is a double lead, 3 teeth if a triple lead, and so on, so to find the rpm of the worm wheel, the worm rpm is multiplied by the number of leads (starts) and divide by the number of teeth on the worm wheel
If the input speed is 100 RPM, the worm has 2 starts (double thread) and the worm wheel has 60 teeth
The formula is: 100 * 2 / 60 = 3.3 rpm

„«   Bevel gears
Bevel gear ratios and speeds are treated as spur gears, and problems are solved using the same formulas as spur gears

„«   Mixed gear trains
In this problem we have a set of spur gears driving a set of bevel gears that drive a worm set
Input is 300 rpm to spur gear A (20t) driving gear B (32T) that shares a common keyed shaft with bevel gear C (21t) driving bevel gear D (26t) which drives a 4 lead worm with a 60 tooth wheel
(300 * 20 * 21 * 4) / (32 * 26 * 60) = 10 RPM
13
Questions, answers, ideas / Help on power calcuations
« Last post by Geo. on September 23, 2016, 03:26:51 PM »
Hi All
I was writing lesson plans and I lost the formula for calculating brake horsepower by hydraulic pressure
This is what i have so far:


Definitions for Work and Power   
•   Foot pound (ft-lb) = 1lb of force exerted over a distance of 1ft in any direction
•   Power – foot pounds per minute
•   Horse power (hp) = 33,000 ft-lb per minute

Calculations for Work and Power   
•   Horsepower for steam engines
o   hp = (P x L x A x N) / 33,000
   hp = Indicated horsepower
   P = effective pressure in in-lb per sq-in
   L = length of stroke in feet
   A = area of piston in sq-in
   N = number of strokes per minute ( = 2 x rpm for double acting engines)

•   Horsepower for gas engines (simplified) (SAE)
o   hp = (D2 x N) / 2.5 = 0.4 X D2 x N
   D = diameter of Cylinders in inches
   N = number of cylinders 

•   Brake Horsepower (bhp)
o   Determined by Pony brake (Old school: steel or leather belt carrying wooden blocks or shoes clamped around the flywheel with adjustment to vary friction on flywheel an lever arm is attached to the outside of band, the pull on lever by friction is measured by platform scale on which the lever rests)

   Actual power available for use 
•   bhp = (2 x 3.1416 x L x N x W) / 33,000
o   L = length of lever
o   N = RPM
o   W = net force = scale reading – weight of lever

o   Determined by Hydraulic pressure (Modern pony brake: engine runs a hydraulic pump, gage on output, valve on return line is slowly closed until engine loses rpm

Can anyone help out?
14
Questions, answers, ideas / Puzzle Part 2
« Last post by Geo. on September 15, 2016, 02:10:34 PM »
Puzzle Part 2
Using the drawing from puzzle 1 add a dashed line during linear interpolation on the following coordinates;

N10 G91 G20 X0.0 Y0.0
N20 G00 X1.125 Y-0.125
N30 G01 X4.500 Y0
N40 X0 Y-1.0
N50 G00 X1.0 Y0
N60 G01 X0 Y-1.500
N70 G00 X-1.0 Y0
N80 G01 X0 Y-1.0
N90 X-4.500 Y0
N100 X0 Y1.0
N110 G00 X-1.0 Y0
N120 G01 X0 Y1.500
N130 G00 X1.0 Y0
N140 G01 X0 Y1.0
N150 G00 X-1.25 Y0.125
N160 M02

On completion students should have the layout pattern and bend lines for a small tray and a working knowledge of the Absolute and Incremental coordinate systems
(This drawing can be scaled up to form a fabrication tool tray project)
15
Questions, answers, ideas / CNC G codes
« Last post by Geo. on September 15, 2016, 10:48:08 AM »
CNC G codes
G00 - Positioning at rapid speed; Mill and Lathe
G01 - Linear interpolation (machining a straight line); Mill and Lathe
G02 - Circular interpolation clockwise (machining arcs); Mill and Lathe
G03 - Circular interpolation, counter clockwise; Mill and Lathe
G04 - Mill and Lathe, Dwell
G09 - Mill and Lathe, Exact stop
G10 - Setting offsets in the program; Mill and Lathe
G12 - Circular pocket milling, clockwise; Mill
G13 - Circular pocket milling, counterclockwise; Mill
G17 - X-Y plane for arc machining; Mill and Lathe with live tooling
G18 - Z-X plane for arc machining; Mill and Lathe with live tooling
G19 - Z-Y plane for arc machining; Mill and Lathe with live tooling
G20 - Inch units; Mill and Lathe
G21 - Metric units; Mill and Lathe
G27 - Reference return check; Mill and Lathe
G28 - Automatic return through reference point; Mill and Lathe
G29 - Move to location through reference point; Mill and Lathe (slightly different for each machine)
G31 - Skip function; Mill and Lathe
G32 - Thread cutting; Lathe
G33 - Thread cutting; Mill
G40 - Cancel diameter offset; Mill. Cancel tool nose offset; Lathe
G41 - Cutter compensation left; Mill. Tool nose radius compensation left; Lathe
G42 - Cutter compensation right; Mill. Tool nose radius compensation right; Lathe
G43 - Tool length compensation; Mill
G44 - Tool length compensation cancel; Mill (sometimes G49)
G50 - Set coordinate system and maximum RPM; Lathe
G52 - Local coordinate system setting; Mill and Lathe
G53 - Machine coordinate system setting; Mill and Lathe
G54~G59 - Workpiece coordinate system settings #1 t0 #6; Mill and Lathe
G61 - Exact stop check; Mill and Lathe
G65 - Custom macro call; Mill and Lathe
G70 - Finish cycle; Lathe
G71 - Rough turning cycle; Lathe
G72 - Rough facing cycle; Lathe
G73 - Irregular rough turning cycle; Lathe
G73 - Chip break drilling cycle; Mill
G74 - Left hand tapping; Mill
G74 - Face grooving or chip break drilling; Lathe
G75 - OD groove pecking; Lathe
G76 - Fine boring cycle; Mill
G76 - Threading cycle; Lathe
G80 - Cancel cycles; Mill and Lathe; Lathe
G81 - Drill cycle; Mill and Lathe
G82 - Drill cycle with dwell; Mill
G83 - Peck drilling cycle; Mill
G84 - Tapping cycle; Mill and Lathe
G85 - Bore in, bore out; Mill and Lathe
G86 - Bore in, rapid out; Mill and Lathe
G87 - Back boring cycle; Mill
G90 - Absolute programming
G91 - Incremental programming
G92 - Reposition origin point; Mill
G93 - Thread cutting cycle
G94 - Per minute feed; Mill
G95 - Per revolution feed; Mill
G96 - Constant surface speed control; Lathe
G97 - Constant surface speed cancel
G98 - Per minute feed; Lathe
G99 - Per revolution feed; Lathe

CNC M Codes
M00 - Program stop; Mill and Lathe
M01 - Optional program stop; Lathe and Mill
M02 - Program end; Lathe and Mill
M03 - Spindle on clockwise; Lathe and Mill
M04 - Spindle on counterclockwise; Lathe and Mill
M05 - Spindle off; Lathe and Mill
M06 – Tool change; Mill
M08 - Coolant on; Lathe and Mill
M09 - Coolant off; Lathe and Mill
M10 - Chuck or rotary table clamp; Lathe and Mill
M11 - Chuck or rotary table clamp off; Lathe and Mill
M19 - Orient spindle; Lathe and Mill
M30 - Program end, return to start; Lathe and Mill
M97 - Local sub-routine call; Lathe and Mill
M98 - Sub-program call; Lathe and Mill
M99 - End of sub program; Lathe and Mill

Adress Codes for Milling and Drilling
A Angular dimension around X axis
B Angular dimension around Y axis
C Angular dimension around Z axis
D Cutter compensation register number
E Angular dimension for special axis
F Feed rate
G Preparatory function (G-codes)
H tool height offset
I X axis arc center location
J Y axis arc center location
K Z axis arc center location
L Loop count repeat for canned cycles
N Block number
O Program number OR subroutine number
P Dwell time
Q Canned cycle repeat dimension
R Arc radius OR z-axis retract distance
S Spindle speed
T Tool selection number
X primary X motion dimension
Y primary Y motion dimension
Z primary Z motion dimension

Adress Codes for Turning

A Fourth axix rotary motion
B Linear B axis motion
C Fifth axis rotary motion
D First pass cut depth for threading
E Feed rate
F Feed rate
G Preparatory function (G-codes)
I X axis arc center location
J Canned cycle data
K Z axis arc center location
L Loop count repeat for canned cycles
N Block number
O Program number OR subroutine number
P Dwell time
Q Canned cycle repeat dimension
R Arc radius OR z-axis retract distance
S Spindle speed
T Tool selection number
U Incremental Z axis motion
V Macro parameter
W Incremental Z axis motion
X primary X motion dimension
Y primary Y motion dimension
Z primary Z motion dimension
16
Questions, answers, ideas / puzzle
« Last post by Geo. on September 15, 2016, 10:45:47 AM »
Hi All
I have been working with layout and also CNC, I put this exercise together for both
This puzzle will fit on an 8.5”x11” paper. Have fun
N10 G90 G20 X0.0 Y0.0
N20 X5.500 Y0.0
N30 X5.750 Y-0.250
N40 Y-1.0
N50 X5.625 Y-1.125
N60 X6.675
N70 Y-2.750
N80 X5.625
N90 X5.75 Y-2.75
N100 Y-3.500
N110 X5.5 Y-3.75
N120 X1.25
N130 X1.0 Y-3.5
N140 Y-2.75
N150 X1.125 Y-2.625
N160 X0.0
N170 Y-1.125
N180 X1.125
N190 X1.0 Y-1.0
N200 Y-0.250
N210 X1.250 Y0.0
N220 G28 M99
17
Questions, answers, ideas / The STEM pipeling is broken
« Last post by Geo. on September 15, 2016, 09:18:39 AM »
Hi All
this one is too long to post here, enjoy

https://issuu.com/edbarker/docs/the_stem_pipeline_is_broken


Have fun
Geo.
18
Should It Worry Everyone That 90% Of Workers Are Confident In Their Skills?
by Chris Jones, GE Reports

The workplace is evolving at lightning speed. Only a few years ago, artificial intelligence, automation and robots seemed like a distant dream. Now barely a day goes past without some reference to machines replacing people in the workplace.

These trends are having a domino effect, or knock-on effect as the British say, on the workplace. As jobs change, new skills are needed, and there’s a real risk employees won’t be prepared. But there’s another skills gap that employers need to urgently address: who’s going to lead and train workers to have these new abilities?
Deeper Insights

Looking Forward: Predicting Trends, Tailoring Products to Micro-Markets
 
Australia’s national science agency, the CSIRO, released a report that revealed workers looking for a job in 2035 may want to retrain as remote-controlled vehicle operators or online chaperones. Sky News recently announced that 46 studio roles across news and sport will be scrapped and replaced with automated machines — however some 31 new jobs will be created in areas such as “automation direction.” India is following suit. Automation will add 160,000 jobs to India’s economy, according to HfS Research.

The City & Guilds Group’s recent Skills Confidence report gathered insights into how confident employees from the U.K., U.S., India and South Africa feel about future trends such as globalization, skilled labor migration and automation. It revealed that only 36 percent of all respondents believe it is important to develop technical skills for a different job role. Meanwhile, 90 percent of all respondents believe they will have the right skills and abilities to help their company succeed in five years’ time. And in the U.K. and U.S., 65 percent of respondents are not threatened by the rise of automation and artificial intelligence.

Why are people so confident that they have all the necessary skills for the future? Is it complete naivety?

With the rise of automation and artificial intelligence, people could be forgiven for thinking that it is solely technical skills we need to develop. Yes, they will be important, especially as our use of technology grows. But we must not forget that some core skills, such as leadership and management, cannot be automated.

Yet our research showed that only 37 percent of employees are aware of their organizations investing in leadership and management development programs – even though a third of employees recognized these as skills gaps in their organizations.

Leadership and management skills cannot be ignored. Leaders and managers ensure employees have the right skills to carry out their roles to a high standard. They have a duty to listen and motivate their teams. When done well, productivity and business performance improves and employee engagement increases.

On the flip side, the impact of poor leadership on an organization can be catastrophic. It lowers team morale, which affects the ability to retain staff and results in wasted talent. A strong relationship between manager and employee is also essential — as management consultant and trainer Victor Lipman stated, “people leave managers, not companies.”

The challenge is people aren’t naturally born as managers and leaders. It takes time, experience and, of course, training. Investing in people to develop these skills cannot be ignored, but sadly often is – often because the conversation around skills development tends to focus more on helping young people get into work, rather than helping existing employees develop on the job.
For example, the British government has focused on cutting youth unemployment in part by encouraging businesses to establish three million apprenticeships by 2020. Young people are our future workforce, so of course they are important. But it is vital that we don’t underestimate the importance of developing other people on the job too.

By 2022, it’s predicted there will be 12.5 million job vacancies in the U.K. due to people leaving the workforce and two million new vacancies. The problem is there will be only seven million young people to fill those 14.5 million jobs. Hence, there’s a need for skills initiatives for all generations.

The bottom line is, employees must adapt to the evolving work landscape — and businesses must support them with skilled managers. And unless there is the urgency to grow in line with global trends, skills gaps will only worsen, causing people to waste time, waste money and be less productive.

Chris Jones is Chief Executive of City & Guilds, a vocational education organization in the United Kingdom.
19
Questions, answers, ideas / Three-phase electric power
« Last post by Geo. on August 19, 2016, 02:23:52 PM »
Three-phase electric power
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating-current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. It is a type of poly-phase system and is the most common method used by electrical grids worldwide to transfer power. It is also used to power large motors and other heavy loads. A three-phase system is usually more economical than an equivalent single-phase or two-phase system at the same voltage because it uses less conductor material to transmit electrical power. The three-phase system was independently invented by Galileo Ferraris, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Nikola Tesla in the late 1880s.


Three-phase electric power transmission
In a three-phase power supply system, three conductors each carry an alternating current (of the same frequency) but the phase of the voltage on each conductor is displaced from each of the other conductors by 120 degrees. (One third of a 360 degree "cycle".) Hence, the voltage on any conductor reaches its peak at one third of a cycle after one of the other conductors and one third of a cycle before the third conductor. Using the voltage on one conductor as the reference, the peak voltage on the other two conductors is delayed by one third and two thirds of one cycle respectively. This phase delay gives constant power transfer over each cycle. It also makes it possible to produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor.

With a three phase supply, at any instant, the potential of any phase is exactly equal to and the opposite of the combination (sum) of the other two phases. This means that - if the load on the three phases is "balanced" - the return path for the current in any phase conductor is the other two phase conductors.

Hence, the sum of the currents in the three conductors is always zero and the current in each conductor is equal to and in the opposite direction as the sum of the currents in the other two. Thus, each conductor acts as the return path for the currents from the other two.
While a single phase AC power supply requires two conductors (Go and Return), a three phase supply can transmit three times the power by using only one extra conductor. This means that a 50% increase in transmission cost yields a 200% increase in the power transmitted.

Three-phase systems may also utilize a fourth wire, particularly in low-voltage distribution. This is the neutral wire. The neutral allows three separate single-phase supplies to be provided at a constant voltage and is commonly used for supplying groups of domestic properties which are each single-phase loads. The connections are arranged so that, as far as possible in each group, equal power is drawn from each phase. Further up the supply chain in high-voltage distribution the currents are usually well balanced and it is therefore normal to omit the neutral conductor.

Three-phase supplies have properties that make them very desirable in electric power distribution systems:
•   The phase currents tend to cancel out one another, summing to zero in the case of a linear balanced load. This makes it possible to reduce the size of the neutral conductor because it carries little to no current; all the phase conductors carry the same current and so can be the same size, for a balanced load.
•   Power transfer into a linear balanced load is constant, which helps to reduce generator and motor vibrations.
•   Three-phase systems can produce a rotating magnetic field with a specified direction and constant magnitude, which simplifies the design of electric motors.

Most household loads are single-phase. In North American residences, three-phase power might feed a multiple-unit apartment block, but the household loads are connected only as single phase. In lower-density areas, only a single phase might be used for distribution. Some large European appliances may be powered by three-phase power, such as electric stoves and clothes dryers.

Wiring for the three phases is typically identified by color codes which vary by country. Connection of the phases in the right order is required to ensure the intended direction of rotation of three-phase motors. For example, pumps and fans may not work in reverse. Maintaining the identity of phases is required if there is any possibility two sources can be connected at the same time; a direct interconnection between two different phases is a short-circuit.

At the power station, an electrical generator converts mechanical power into a set of three AC electric currents, one from each coil (or winding) of the generator. The windings are arranged such that the currents vary sinusoidally at the same frequency but with the peaks and troughs of their wave forms offset to provide three complementary currents with a phase separation of one-third cycle (120° or 2π⁄3 radians). The generator frequency is typically 50 or 60 Hz, varying by country.

At the power station, transformers change the voltage from generators to a level suitable for transmission minimizing losses.
After further voltage conversions in the transmission network, the voltage is finally transformed to the standard utilization before power is supplied to customers.

Most automotive alternators generate three phase AC and rectify it to DC with a diode bridge.
Transformer connections

A "delta" connected transformer winding is connected between phases of a three-phase system. A "wye" ("star") transformer connects each winding from a phase wire to a common neutral point.

In an "open delta" or "V" system, only two sets of transformers are used. A closed delta system can operate as an open delta if one of the transformers has failed or needs to be removed. In open delta, each transformer must carry current for its respective phases as well as current for the third phase, therefore capacity is reduced to 87%. With one of three transformers missing and the remaining two at 87% efficiency, the capacity is 58% ((2/3) × 87%).

Where a delta-fed system must be grounded for protection from surge voltages, a grounding transformer (usually a zigzag transformer) may be connected to allow ground fault currents to return from any phase to ground. Another variation is a "corner grounded" delta system, which is a closed delta that is grounded at one of the junctions of transformers.

20
Questions, answers, ideas / Boeing
« Last post by Geo. on August 19, 2016, 12:31:15 PM »
The U.S. Air Force has awarded a contract valued at $2.8 billion to Boeing to produce the first 19 new KC-46A tankers. The contract comes about a month after the company passed a major milestone in the project and after nearly $2 billion in pretax charges that Boeing had to swallow on the program.

The contract award calls for the Air Force to acquire seven tankers from low-rate initial production lot 1 and 12 tankers from LRIP lot 2, along with spare engines and wing refueling pod kits. Deliveries are "expected to be complete by August 24, 2018," according to the Air Force announcement.

In mid-July the new tanker passed the last of six flight refueling tests required for the contract award. In order to clear the Air Force's "Milestone C," the KC-46A had to pass fuel to Air Force F-16 fighter jets, Navy F/A-18 Hornets, the Marine Corp AV-8B Harrier II, the C-17 cargo plane, the A-10 Thunderbolt II (aka the Warthog) and another KC-46 as the receiving aircraft.
Boeing plans to build a total of 179 KC-46A tankers to replace the current Air Force fleet of KC-135 tankers. The last KC-135 entered service in the mid-1960s.

The new tanker is based on the company's 767 jet. Boeing built two 767-2Cs and two KC-46As as part of its engineering and manufacturing development contract with the Air Force. The fixed price for those planes was $4.9 billion. As already noted, Boeing has had to swallow nearly $2 billion in costs above that figure, but it may be worth it. The total value of the contract could exceed $100 billion, including spare parts and other services.

Boeing's stock closed up about 0.2% on Thursday at $135.00 and was inactive in Friday's premarket. The stock's 52-week range is $102.10 to $150.59 and the 12-month price target is $149.27.
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